Welding is a process of joining two or more metal similar or not similar to the metal melt by heating above the melting point and below the melting point. This process can be done by bringing pressure or not without pressure. Besides, it can be done with or without filler metal mining altogether addition of filler metal.
Below are the advantages and weaknesses or limitations of the use of welded joints:
Advantages of Welding:
- Welding produces a permanent connection.
- Connection weld can be stronger than the initial material when using filler metal and use the right technique.
- In general, the costs incurred for the welding process is connecting the most economical in terms of the use of material and fabrication costs.
- In addition, to using in factories, welding can also be done in the field.
Disadvantages and limitations Of Welding:
- Generally, the welding is done manually and requires an expensive charge carrier.
- In addition, the welding process requires a large energy likely to be dangerous.
- Welding results difficult to be dismantled, so that if required the demolition of the product for repair or maintenance, the welding method will not be used for the process of switching products.
- Defective weld joint may envelop so it is not visible. The flaw can reduce the strength of the connection.
Welding can be applied at various places and in various industries. As a grafting technology for commercial products, a lot of the welding process is done in factories. But some traditional welding processes as Arc Welding and Gas Welding Oxyfuel use equipment that allows for easy switching process is infinity in factories, but also construction in the field such as marine, automotive repair shops, and others.
In principle welding used for:
- Construction (buildings, bridges)
- Piping, pressure vessels, boilers, storage tanks
- Building ships
- Aircraft and spacecraft
Generally, the welding is done by experienced operators: Welder, assisted by Fitter. Welder on duty manually controls the welding process to combine the components with other components. Fitter in charge of preparing the components, welding equipment, holders of the components to be welded (welding fixture).
Safety factor for welding, The welding process is basically a danger for humans:
- High-temperature molten metal is a part to be joined.
- In welding Oxygen, acetylene (fuel) is a flammable material.
- The welding process uses substantial energy to melt the surface of the components to be joined.
- Many of the welding processes use electricity as an energy source of heat, so there is a danger of electric shock load / short flows.
- On electric welding, emission of ultraviolet radiation is very harmful to eyesight, so it requires a helmet/mask with glass windows so dark to see.
- Sparks, stepping molten metal, smoke, and parts that melt increase the risk of welding processes.
Because of the danger posed by manual welding as well as efforts to improve productivity and the quality of it is developing a wide variety of mechanization and automation of welding, which is divided into:
- Machine Welding (welding machines): The operator (human) continuously monitor the process and interact with the equipment For control of operations.
- Automatic Welding (automatic welding): Tools that allow to carry out the process without setting control by the operator (human), for example, equipment to adjust the position of the workpiece (fixture) time to be welded.
- Robotic Welding (welding robots): programmable industrial robot or manipulator used for controlling the process automatically, for example, the movement relative head welding (welding head) to the workpiece.
Type Welded Joints, there are five (5) basic types of welded joints:
- Butt joint
- Corner joint
- Lap joint
- Tee joint
- Edge joint